Applied Cell Biology

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Assessing the Usage Anesthesia in the Surgical Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema

Akshay Jakkidi Reddy1, Allen Dang2, Sarah Yee3, Muhammad S. Ghauri1, Yui Seo2, Neel Nawathey4, Alex Bachir5, Telak Brahmbhatt4 and Rakesh Patel6*

1Department of Medicine, California University of Science and Medicine, Colton, USA
2Department of Medicine, California Northstate University, Rancho Cordova, USA
3Urology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, USA
4Health Sciences, California Northstate University, Rancho Cordova, USA
5Medicine, Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, Scranton, USA
6Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University Quillen College of Medicine · Johnson City, USA


Diabetes-related macular edema is a fast-spreading condition that has damaged the lives of countless people throughout the globe. The current incorporation of subthreshold micropulse laser has indicated the precedence of laser therapy in the treatment of diabetic macular edema; nonetheless, vitreoretinal surgery in conjunction with anesthetics correlates with early mitigation of damage to the fovea. Surgery is a delicate procedure that necessitates careful consideration of the types and locations of anesthetics used. Depending on the individual being treated, various drugs and methods may be necessary. For example, some individuals may be allergic to conventional anesthetics, resulting in more severe consequences. In the surgical treatment of diabetic macular edema, the topical anesthetic was utilized more frequently than subconjunctival anesthesia, according to the review’s statistical analysis. The examined literature indicated that topical lidocaine was the most employed anesthetic for vitreoretinal surgery; however, alternatives to lidocaine exist, and their effects should be investigated. Consequently, we would want to highlight the impacts of each of the several surgical medications and anesthetics used to treat diabetic macular edema.

Diabetic macular edema Topical anesthesia Subconjunctival anesthesia Lidocaine Cooling anesthesia
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