The Genetics and Learning Disorders of the Syndromes Involving Craniosynostosis
Sarabjot Singh-Makkar1, Talwinder Kaur Grewal1, Japjeet Kaur1, Anjali Sharma1, Trissa Paul1 and Pamela Youssef2
1Larkin Health System, South Miami FL, USA
2Larkin University, South Miami FL, USA
Prenatal genetic vehicles that lead to facial and cranial dysmorphias, specifically craniosynostosis, are seen in a spectrum of synostotic syndromes that include apert, crouzon, Kleeblattschadel deformity, saethre-chotzen, muenke, cranio-fronto-nasal syndrome, Robinow-Sorauf syndrome and beare-stevenson-cutis-gyrata syndrome. Specific genes involved in cranio-synostotic syndromes include: TWIST1, EFNB1, GLI2, DMD, YWHAE, IRAK2, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, CNTNAP2, ADAMTS18, SKI, MECP2, KIFBP, TCF12, H2AL1P, GAGE12D and possibly HDAC9. Regarding protein expression, conserved domains found in rpsblast for craniosynostosis using the NCBI homologene tool show IGc2 (smart00408) immunoglobulin C-2 Type, PKc_like (cl09925) Protein Kinases, catalytic domain, Ig (cl11960) Immunoglobulin domain. A discussion of all the syndromes involving craniosynostosis is beyond the scope of this paper. We will discuss the clinical features, genetics, cognitive development and associated psychiatric conditions of the more common syndromes involving craniosynostosis. We theorize that the clinical features and genetics of craniosynostosis involve a spectrum of syndromes on which there is variable severity and involvement of impaired cognition and developmental disorders.
Craniosynostosis; ADHD; Immunoglobulin